A.O.R Advanced Orthomolecular Research Brand
Gout, also referred to as metabolic arthritis or acute inflammatory
monoarthritis, is caused by an abnormal build-up of uric acid in the
blood – uric acid being a metabolic by-product of purine metabolism.
Purines are natural substances found in many foods, and particularly in
high protein foods like organ meats and fish like mackerel and sardines.
Excessive blood levels of uric acid then lead to acute inflammation of
the joints. ’Classic Gout’ which usually targets the joints of the big
toe and other joints within the legs and feet and can affect people of
all ages. However, another type of gout – called ‘Atypical Gout’ – can
affect any joint in either the arms or legs and is observed
predominantly in the elderly. Both types of gout are characterized by
excruciating pain and swelling. In many typical cases of gout, patients
are overweight, predisposed to Type II diabetes and hypertension, and
are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Gout is
disproportionately found in societies whose diets include large amounts
of protein, fat and alcohol. Since a fundamental facet of gout is the
metabolism of protein, the areas of kidney, bladder and urinary tract
health are primary targets for treatment.
Natural Treatment Options
Mulberry has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine to help reduce
the symptoms of gout. Recent research has shown that the key to
mulberry’s anti-gout actions may be a unique phytochemical called Morin.
Morin is a naturally-occurring flavone found in the twigs of White
Mulberry. The precise mechanism of action for morin appears to be
two-fold and effectively synergistic. Firstly, it acts on the kidneys to
inhibit uric acid reabsorption and thus promote the excretion of uric
acid from the body. Secondly, it inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase,
which is responsible for breakdown of purines into uric acid.
Polyphenols: Grape Seed Extract and Resveratrol
Polyphenols can also play a role in the prevention of kidney
stones and help support the urinary system. Resveratrol, an
exceptionally potent compound of this class, may inhibit xanthine
oxidase activity, while grape seed extract may reduce xanthine oxidase
and acts as an antioxidant since oxidative stress is proposed to be
involved in gout.
Animal studies have revealed that morin effectively inhibits
the uptake of urate and to lower uric acid levels in rats. In-vitro
studies have also demonstrated an anti-atherosclerosis potential on the
part of morin.
Grape Seed Extract and Resveratrol
Resveratrol has been shown in-vitro to be capable of directly
inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. Polyphenols found in grape seed
extract, have been shown, in-vitro, to cause a reduction in xanthine
oxidase (XO) and xanthine-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species
(ROS) accumulation. Researchers at the University of Hong Kong have
identified ROS as being an important contributing factor in gouty
arthritis. In animal models of gout (chickens), grape seed extracts have
been shown to be highly effective at reducing serum uric acid levels.
There is not much in the way of supplements or
natural treatments for gout. Gout is typically dealt with using
medications and anti-inflammatories. Black cherry juice can also help
reduce uric acid.
delivers a novel supplement, being
one of the first to provide a combination of ingredients to help lower
uric acid levels in the blood.
Du Y, et al. Grape seed polyphenols protect
cardiac cells from apoptosis via induction of endogenous antioxidant
enzymes. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Mar 7;55(5):1695-701.
Jia Z, et al. EPR studies on the superoxide-scavenging capacity
of the nutraceutical resveratrol. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008
Sonlimar M and Sarmalina S. Effect of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Seed on Reducing Serum Uric Acid Level in Gout-Animals Model. Majalah Kesehatan PharmaMedika, 2010 Vol.2, No.1: 106-109.
Yu Z, et al. Morin (3,5,7,2?,4?-pentahydroxyflavone) exhibits
potent inhibitory actions on urate transport by the human urate anion
transporter (hURAT1) expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Drug
Metab Dispos. 2007 Jun;35(6):981-6.
Yu Z, et al. The dual actions of morin
(3,5,7,2?,4?-pentahydroxyflavone) as a hypouricemic agent: uricosuric
effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.